Tests whose scores are interpreted by referral to well defined domains of content or behaviours, rather than by referral to the performance of some comparable group of people.
Yarbrough, D. B., Shulha, L. M., Hopson, R. K., and Caruthers, F. A. (2011). The program evaluation standards: A guide for evaluators and evaluation users (3rd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.